“All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.” 2 Timothy 3:16
Thousands of people, both men and women across the world, attend a college or seminary to become pastors, priests, or certified Bible teachers. It’s encouraging that so many people are interested in taking a greater role in the church.
But is it for everyone?
Is it okay for both men and women to be pastors or priests? How about women, specifically? What does the Bible say about who serves in places of authority in the church? The answer may surprise you.
Going Straight to the Source
A very controversial topic in the church (or in any faith, for that matter) is whether women are Biblically permitted to be pastors, priests, or even rabbis. Some modern men and women think it’s just fine while other more conservative people do not. Some people think it’s a sexist issue while others fail to see any problem.
It’s always important to remember that when we come across issues such as this, we should never apply our feelings or personal opinions to it because feelings and opinions can be faulty. And Satan is always trying to lead us astray. Instead, as followers of Christ, we must always go straight to the Word of God for definitive answers.
So, let’s begin by looking at 1 Timothy 2 with a little bit of historical background.
Paul’s First Letter to Timothy
After his first release from a Roman jail (Acts 28:30), the apostle Paul and his protégé, Timothy, went back to the cities where they had been ministering before Paul’s arrest. One of those cities was Ephesus, which is where he left Timothy behind to deal with the issues the church was having, such as false doctrine, idol worship, and disorder in the church’s leadership.
Paul then went on to Macedonia, which is where he was when he wrote his two letters to Timothy. He intended for the letters to encourage Timothy in his work and to offer some practical advice to the young missionary. The two letters, along with the book of Titus, are now known as the Pastoral Epistles.
In Paul’s first letter, he advises Timothy in five different areas—false doctrine, church order, false teachers, pastoral responsibilities, and proper pastoral conduct and behavior as a leader in the church. It’s in chapter two where we find Paul addressing the issue of women as leaders in the church. Evidently, many women were involved in the church’s leadership, and it was causing some concern among some of the church members.
Remember, these people had only recently accepted the truth that Jesus is the promised Messiah. Before then, they were practicing Jews. And back in those days, women did not have any authority in the Jewish faith (or anywhere else).
There was also the issue of women leading others in worship to the pagan god Artemis at a nearby temple. Paul knew the Christian church needed to be different.
The result was confusion and discontent about the role of women within the church. Paul attempts to clear up the matter as he advises Timothy in his letter.
Women as Learners
“Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived fell into transgression.” (1 Timothy 2:11-13 NKJ)
Many people have objections over Paul’s statement. But let’s try to think as a first-century Christian and decipher what Paul truly meant.
“Let a woman learn in silence…” (v11)
In the Greek, the word “let” (manthaneto) has an imperative meaning in which Paul is saying women must be allowed to learn in the church. The command was revolutionary for its time. Women were not held in high esteem by either the Jewish or Greek cultures, and so they were largely uneducated.
It’s theorized that certain women, armed with a new faith and a brand-new church, might have exerted a little too much girl power to try to gain a place of authority and respect. But Paul says they should commit to learning first, not teaching. At least not to men.
He also says they must do it “in silence.” It was not meant as a command to keep their mouths shut, but to characterize the role of women as learners.
“…with all submission.” (v11)
Women were permitted to learn. They could even teach, but only to children or other women. They were not permitted to teach men. And they certainly were not to take the authority of the pastors or elders. Paul explains this more in verse twelve.
God’s Design for Women in the Church
“And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man…” (v12)
Paul recognizes the importance of teaching within the church, but in this case, he’s referring to teaching or pastoring an entire church. Paul goes on to say in 1 Timothy 3:2 and 5:17 that it’s the elders who rule over the church and should have spiritual authority, and they should all be men.
Paul recognizes men and women in a church have unique roles that were designed by God. He goes on to explain in verses thirteen and fourteen.
“For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived fell into transgression.” (v13, 14)
Paul begins by saying, “For Adam…” The word for means he is giving his explanation for what he said in the previous sentence (verse 12). And his explanation has everything to do with the creation story. God made Adam first, and then He made Eve from one of Adam’s ribs.
His point is that God designed a woman’s role based on the original creation order. He made her to be a helper (Genesis 2:18), not the authority. Paul is also noting that Eve wasn’t suited to assume any authority over Adam, but she did anyway. And we all know what happened next.
Not only did Eve believe Satan’s lies and eat the fruit, but Adam, her husband, did too. He followed Eve instead of obeying God. In the end, they both violated God’s design about the roles of men and women as they brought sin into the world.
Paul isn’t trying to say that women are more easily deceived than men. Rather, he is saying that women are not to be in places of authority where they would teach entire congregations, which include men. To do so would upset God’s order of things.
God created Adam first, so men are the rightful authority.
Qualifications to be a Pastor
In 1 Timothy 3:1-7 and Titus 1:6-9, Paul outlines the criteria for becoming a bishop.
“This is a faithful saying: If a man desires the position of a bishop, he desires a good work.” 1 Timothy 3:1
“If a man is blameless, the husband of one wife…For a bishop must be blameless as a steward of God.” Titus 1:6-7
The Greek word for bishop is episkopos, and the Greek word for pastor is poimen. Both words are masculine, not feminine, nouns both meaning “to shepherd” or “to care for.”
In both Biblical passages, Paul details what the qualifications are to be a bishop—blameless, the husband of one wife, of good behavior, hospitable, able to teach, not given to wine or greed, and who rules his house well, among other things—with the first point being that a bishop should be “a man.”
Paul nor anyone else in the Bible detail the qualifications for a woman to become a pastor.
It’s Not Men vs. Women
It’s important to understand that Paul’s words have nothing to do with sexism or male dominance or male chauvinism, though today’s culture would have you believe that. It has nothing to do with men versus women or men somehow being better than women. That would be a lie. In fact, Paul openly welcomed women’s participation in the church and the community.
We can’t disagree that women play a vital role in the church. It’s obvious women are crucial to keeping the ship upright and sailing smoothly. Yet, the Bible makes it clear they are not to be elders (spiritual overseers) or leaders of the church because of God’s design of His creation and His direction of how the church functions. Paul is trying to clarify this point.
This fact doesn’t leave women out in the cold. Though women cannot be bishops or pastors or elders, God has many unique roles for them to play.
Women might teach children or other women in the church. They might manage the office. They might head certain departments, lead mission groups, or organize events. The list goes on and on (and on). It’s quite true that God has many places of leadership within the church for women.
Women in the Bible
Some people might argue that God put several Biblical women in places of spiritual authority over men, and so women today should be allowed to do the same.
One of these women is Miriam. She was Moses’ and Aaron’s sister. The Bible says she was a prophetess (Exodus 15:20), but her brothers were the ones who were in charge. At no time was she in a formal position of leading the Israelites, though many people believe she was a leading figure among the women.
Another woman is Deborah in Judges 4. Deborah was a prophetess of great wisdom, and so she performed the tasks of a judge. She showed great courage and leadership after Barak pleaded that she go with him into battle. Deborah was a strong woman, but she was not a bishop or pastor.
A third woman is Phoebe. Paul describes her as a “servant of the church.” He also adds, “For indeed she has been a helper of many and of myself also.” Because of this description, Phoebe is often called a deaconess, which in Greek means servant. She was never a pastor or bishop, though.
In Acts 18, we find Priscilla. She and her husband, Aquila, ministered to a man named Apollos after he tried to teach a group of people in Ephesus about the Lord. Priscilla and Aquila took Apollos aside and told him about Jesus. Apollos then went on to Achaia, teaching the truth about Christ. Priscilla, together with her husband, taught Apollos. She did not do this alone, nor did she do it publicly. So, she can’t be called a pastor either.
Finally, some people refer to Lydia in Acts 16. She was the first one in Philippi who converted to Christianity. Acts 16:15 says Paul baptized her and her household, not that she was the leader of a house church. It also says nothing about her teaching men publicly.
God’s Word Never Changes
Some people still might disagree with Paul. Some might still think it’s perfectly fine that women become pastors or priests or elders. It’s human nature that we have different views and opinions. But we must be unified in one fact or else we fail as a church.
We must all recognize the Bible is God-breathed (2 Timothy 3:16), perfect (Psalm 119:96), pure (Psalm 12:6), and infallible (Proverbs 30:5). We should never try to alter it. And, we should never pick apart God’s Word choosing to believe some of it while ignoring other parts of it. Either we believe all of it is true, or we believe none of it. To do otherwise would deny God of His sovereignty and character.
As a messenger of the Lord, Paul felt compelled to instruct the truth of God’s word and set the record straight with Timothy regarding the role of women in the church. He is also setting it straight with us today.
Women are not less capable or intelligent or in any way inferior to men. They are not less important in the church. In fact, God has given them (and me) an important ministry that plays a crucial role in the health and function of the church. It’s a role that lines up with God’s plan and enables us all to better reach others with the gospel message of Jesus as we grow in our faith.
The roles of men and women complement each other in the church. It is God’s design. As a church, we must all acknowledge it.
If you have come to a different conclusion than what the Bible says after careful prayer and searching, then you have that right. But always remember, God’s truth never changes. Trusting and obeying that truth benefits us all.
Paul was often misunderstood about his views of women. In Paul, Women, and Church, Dr. Eddie Hyatt explains how Paul commonly treated women with respect and valued them as friends and coworkers in the Christian faith. Dr. Hyatt also takes a theoretical approach to Paul’s words in the New Testament that show Paul did not try to restrict a woman’s role in the church.
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Greetings Gina – and thankyou so much for the latest Steppes of Faith. May I take the opportunity to comment on ‘Should women become Pastors’ Firstly a point worth making: Gal 3 v 28 – ‘there is neither male nor female for ye are all one in Christ’ here the Bible teaches that men and women in Christ are equal- but the roles are different. Women do have a teaching ministry but it is to other women and children . Secondly Pauls letter to the Corinthian church : 1 Cor 11 v 2 – ‘The head of the woman is the man – the woman is not the head of anything. I do not wish to appear a traitor to my sisters in Christ – but always where woman are the dominant ones – the result is ‘weak men’ – read Isiah 3 16 -24: the haughty women of Zion- v 25 – result ‘Thy men shall fall by the sword-weakened. Blessings – Val Lougheed
I completely agree with you, Val. Thanks for stopping by.
Great thoughts and breakdown. God bless you
Hi Gina, I enjoyed your post. I’d just like to make an insert concerning Deborah. I agree that she was neither a pastor nor a bishop. However, none of the men judges during that time were called pastors or bishops either. We can’t deny that, as judge, Deborah was given authority over men. It was she who delivered the Word of God to Barak that God wanted him to lead an attack.
Paul wrote, according to,
I Corinthians 14:
34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.
35 And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.
Many people have misunderstood that in verses 34 and 35, Paul was addressing the Corinthians way of thinking. Verses 36 thru 38 are Paul’s response.
36 What? came the word of God out from you? or came it unto you only?
37 If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord.
38 But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.
Hi Lawrence. I appreciate your thoughts.
Regarding Deborah, she did not preach or teach Barak. She was only passing on a message from God to him. So though she did have a certain amount of authority, she did not attempt to teach the men about God or His laws.
Yes, that’s true about 1 Corinthians 14. Paul was addressing the free-for-all going on in the Corinthian church. In verses 36 and 37, he knew he would get some pushback for the new rules, so he sarcastically challenged them to consider if they were above God’s word. If they were not, then they should acknowledge the truth. But if anyone chose to be ignorant, Paul says that’s your choice. I believe, though, it’s a good question we should continue to ask today–do we think we are above God’s word that we feel we can choose to believe and do what we like regardless of what God says? Or is God’s word the final word? Either the Bible is all true or it is not. It cannot be both.
Thanks for reading and commenting. I always appreciate the input.
Hello. I am new to this complementary doctrine, and I have a few questions. Please understand that I am not trying to devalue what you have written or challenge it, I only just want to have a better understanding of it all.
My question: Are women supposed to live in constant submission to every man? Are they allowed to do things like speak at a church which has men in the crowd? And finally, are they allowed to do things that are not a man’s will?
Thank you in advance.
Women are not to be in submission as women tend to define it in modern times. What the Bible is saying is that women have one role in the church, and men have a different role. Each role is based on our respective strengths and they are to complement each other.
I believe it is a fine line whether or not a woman can speak to a crowd with men in it. In my opinion of what I understand the Bible to tell us is that women can teach but not preach. Women can teach, for example, how to live a godly lifestyle, how to have Christ in the center of your family, or how to be encouraged through different seasons. This is why women typically lead women’s groups or head up the childcare or children’s ministry in the church. But to preach and convey God’s commands to the congregation is supposed to be a man’s position. Just as Adam was made first and men are the head of the household, men also head up the church as a whole. As I said, it’s a fine line. I believe many women have a special message from the Lord to tell and are just as capable of leading men to Christ as a man does. But if we’re talking about Biblical technicalities, women are only supposed to teach to other women and to children. Beth Moore is a good example about how to handle it correctly.
As for your last question, women should not always be concerned with a man’s will. Only God’s will matter. But…the Bible does tell us that we must obey man’s law, i.e. the legal system and other rules. If you’re asking about relationships and whether a woman must bend to a man’s will, the answer is not necessarily. It depends on the circumstances. When there is conflict, the Bible tells us a lot about how to resolve it peacefully and find agreement without damaging the relationship (if you’re married, see Ephesians 5). In the end, only God’s will matters. If the man’s will is not in line with God’s, then a conversation needs to be had so as to avoid sin and unintended consequences.
I hope that all helps. I appreciate your questions. May God continue to bless you and grant you wisdom.
Thank you so much! That explanation really layed out what God wants for a women in her life. Again, thank you!
You’re so welcome. So happy to bless you.
Thank you, Andrew. I completely agree with you. I think it’s interesting that God brought those two verses to your mind. Perhaps He is trying to reveal something to you. I love it when He does that. I appreciate your kind words. I hope you stop by again sometime. God bless.
Hi, Gina, I like your work, it is very good, Thanks for your pins , When I saw the title of your latest post, it just came to my mind partially, these two bible verses, had to look them up, Joel 2: 28- and Acts 2: 17 or in context Acts 2: 14-20. This is a new work of God being or to be manifested only in the last days , which I believe we are living in, going forward towards the end. I think it will be interesting to you, to know or maybe you already know, that sons and daughters, servants of the lord are included to Prophecy, probably with the same authority or order, which was spoken of Paul through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. I would think so. Thought you might like my import.